April 8th, 2021

An Agreement To Create A Government And Consent To Its Laws Is Known As


Locke realized that the decisive objection to acting as a judge with power, to act in the state of nature, was that such persons would end up being judges in their own affairs. Locke readily admits that this was a serious inconvenience and a major cause for leaving the state of nature (Two Treaties 2.13). Mr. Locke emphasized this point because he helped explain the transition to civil society. Locke believed that in the state of nature, men had the freedom to engage in “innocent pleasures” (actions that do not constitute a violation of applicable laws), to seek their own preservation within the limits of natural law, and to punish violations of natural law. The power to seek one`s own protection is limited by law in civil society, and the power to punish is transferred to the government (Two Treaties 2,128-130). The power to sanction in the state of nature is therefore the basis of the right of governments to apply coercive power. Natural law also differs from divine law in that, in Christian tradition, it usually refers to the laws that God had revealed directly by prophets and other inspired writers. Natural law can only be discovered by reason and applies to all men, while divine law can only be discovered by God`s special revelation and applies only to those to whom it is revealed and to whom God explicitly says he is bound. Thus, some 17th-century commentators, including Locke, declared that all 10 commandments, let alone the rest of the Old Testament law, were not binding on all men.

The Ten Commandments begin “Listen to Israel” and therefore engage only the people to whom they were addressed (Work 6:37). (Spelling and formatting are modernized in Locke`s quotes in this entry). As we shall see below, even if Locke thought that the law of nature might be known apart from the particular revelation, he saw no contradiction in the fact that God played a role in reasoning as long as the relevant aspects of God`s character could be discovered by reason alone. In Locke`s theory, divine law and natural law are consistent and may overlap on substance, but they are not coextensive. So there is no problem for Locke if the Bible masters a stricter moral code than one that can be deduced from natural law, but there is a real problem when the Bible teaches what is contrary to natural law. In practice, Locke avoided this problem because compliance with natural law was one of the criteria he set for deciding on the correct interpretation of biblical passages. An erosion of the fundamental principles of federalism, since the federal government has systematically penetrated the authority of the federal states. The criminalization of acts already criminalized by states, for example, takes over the authority of the state (and, regardless of the opinions of the Supreme Court, circumvents the prohibition of double threat in the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution: “No person should be threatened twice by the body or members.” An even more striking contemporary example of exceeding federal law is the continuation of federal controls on marijuana use in states that have legalized the medical or recreational use of marijuana.

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